Abstract: IC chip (Integrated Circuit integrated circuit) is an integrated circuit formed by a large number of microelectronic components (transistors, resistors, capacitors, diodes, etc.) on a plastic base to make a chip. Almost all the chips you see today can be called IC chips. Below, I will introduce you to the relevant knowledge of IC chips.
[The role of the IC chip] What are the IC chips
What is an IC chip
IC chip (Integrated Circuit integrated circuit) is an integrated circuit formed by a large number of microelectronic components (transistors, resistors, capacitors, diodes, etc.) on a plastic base to make a chip. Almost all the chips you see today can be called IC chips.
Integrated circuit (integrated circuit) is a miniature electronic device or component. A certain process is used to interconnect the components, such as transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors, and inductors, and wiring required in a circuit, to produce a small or several small semiconductor wafers or dielectric substrates, and then package them in a tube. Inside the case, it becomes a miniature structure with the required circuit functions; all the components have been integrated into a structure, making electronic components a big step towards miniaturization, low power consumption and high reliability. It is represented in the circuit by the letter "IC". The inventors of integrated circuits were Jack Kilby (silicon-based integrated circuits) and Robert Neuss (germanium-based integrated circuits). Most applications in the semiconductor industry today are silicon-based integrated circuits.
Integrated circuits are now called IC chips in the industry.
What are the types of IC chips
一 (1) Classification by functional structure
Integrated circuits can be divided into analog integrated circuits and digital integrated circuits according to their functions and structures.
Analog integrated circuits are used to generate, amplify, and process various analog signals (referring to signals whose amplitude changes over time. For example, audio signals of semiconductor radios, tape signals of recorders, etc.), while digital integrated circuits are used to generate, amplify, and process Various digital signals (refer to signals with discrete values in time and amplitude. For example, VCD and DVD playback audio signals and video signals).
Basic analog integrated circuits include operational amplifiers, multipliers, integrated voltage regulators, timers, and signal generators. There are many types of digital integrated circuits. Small-scale integrated circuits have various gate circuits, such as NAND gates, NAND gates, OR gates, etc .; medium-scale integrated circuits have data selectors, codecs, flip-flops, counters, registers, and so on. Large-scale or very large-scale integrated circuits include PLDs (programmable logic devices) and ASICs (application-specific integrated circuits).
From the perspective of PLD and ASIC, the difference between components, devices, circuits, and systems is no longer strict. Not only that, the PLD device itself is just a hardware carrier, and different circuit functions can be implemented by loading different programs. Therefore, modern devices are no longer pure hardware, and software devices and corresponding software electronics have been used more and more in modern electronic design, and their status is becoming more and more important. There are many types of circuit components. With the continuous improvement of electronic technology and technological level, a large number of new devices continue to appear, and the same device also has a variety of packaging forms. For example: SMD components have been everywhere in modern electronic products. For different use environments, the same device also has different industrial standards. There are usually three standards for domestic components, namely: civil standards, industrial standards, and military standards. Different standards have different prices. The price of military standard devices may be ten times or more than that of civilian standards. Industry standards are somewhere in between.
(2) Classification by production process
Integrated circuits can be divided into semiconductor integrated circuits and thin film integrated circuits according to the manufacturing process.
Thin film integrated circuits are classified into thick film integrated circuits and thin film integrated circuits.
(3) Classification by level of integration
Integrated circuits are divided into small-scale integrated circuits (SSI), medium-scale integrated circuits (MSI), large-scale integrated circuits (LSI), very large-scale integrated circuits (VLSI), and ultra-large-scale integrated circuits (ULSI).
(IV) Classification by different conductive types
Integrated circuits can be divided into bipolar integrated circuits and unipolar integrated circuits according to the conductive type.
The manufacturing process of bipolar integrated circuits is complicated and the power consumption is large, which means that integrated circuits include TTL, ECL, HTL, LST-TL, STTL and other types. The unipolar integrated circuit has a simple manufacturing process and low power consumption, and is easy to be made into a large-scale integrated circuit. The representative integrated circuits include CMOS, NMOS, and PMOS.
(5) Classification by purpose
Integrated Circuits According to the application, it can be divided into TV integrated circuits. Integrated circuits for audio, integrated circuits for video players, integrated circuits for video recorders, integrated circuits for computers (microcomputers), integrated circuits for electronic pianos, integrated circuits for communications, integrated circuits for cameras, integrated circuits for remote control, integrated circuits for speech, integrated circuits for alarms Circuits and various application specific integrated circuits.
TV integrated circuits include line, field scan integrated circuits, mid-amp integrated circuits, sound integrated circuits, color decoding integrated circuits, AV / TV conversion integrated circuits, switching power supply integrated circuits, remote control integrated circuits, Liyin decoding integrated circuits, graphics Chinese painting processing integrated circuits, microprocessor (CPU) integrated circuits, memory integrated circuits, etc.
Audio integrated circuits include AM / FM high-IF circuits, stereo decoding circuits, audio preamp circuits, audio operational amplifier integrated circuits, audio power amplifier integrated circuits, surround sound processing integrated circuits, level drive integrated circuits, and electronic volume control integration Circuit, time delay reverberation integrated circuit, electronic switch integrated circuit, etc.
Integrated circuits for DVD players include system control integrated circuits, video encoding integrated circuits, MPEG decoding integrated circuits, audio signal processing integrated circuits, sound effects integrated circuits, RF signal processing integrated circuits, digital signal processing integrated circuits, servo integrated circuits, and motor drives. Integrated circuits, etc.
Integrated circuit for video recorder There are system control integrated circuit, servo integrated circuit, drive integrated circuit, audio processing integrated circuit and video processing integrated circuit.
1, BGA (ball grid array)
Spherical contact display, one of the surface mount packages. On the back side of the printed circuit board, spherical bumps are produced in a display manner to replace the pins. LSI chips are mounted on the front side of the printed circuit board, and then sealed by molding resin or potting. Also called a bump display carrier (PAC). The pin can exceed 200, which is a package for multi-pin LSI. The package body can also be made smaller than QFP (Four-sided Pin Flat Package). For example, a 360-pin BGA with a pin center distance of 1.5mm is only 31mm square; a 304-pin QFP with a pin center distance of 0.5mm is 40mm square. And BGA does not have to worry about pin deformation problems like QFP. This package was developed by Motorola Corporation in the United States and was first adopted in mobile phones and other devices. It may be popularized in the United States in the future. Initially, the center distance of the pins (bumps) of the BGA was 1.5 mm, and the number of pins was 225. There are also some LSI manufacturers currently developing 500-pin BGAs. The problem with BGA is visual inspection after reflow. It is unclear whether an effective visual inspection method is available. Some people think that because the center distance of the welding is large, the connection can be regarded as stable and can only be handled through functional inspection. Motorola Corporation of the United States refers to the package sealed with molded resin as OMPAC, and the package sealed by potting method is called GPAC (see OMPAC and GPAC).
2 、 BQFP (quad flat package with bumper)
Four side pin flat package with cushion. One of the QFP packages. Protrusions (buffer pads) are provided at the four corners of the package body to prevent the pins from being deformed during shipping. US semiconductor manufacturers mainly use this package in circuits such as microprocessors and ASICs. The center distance of the pins is 0.635mm, and the number of pins ranges from 84 to 196 (see QFP).
3. Butt joint pin grid array (PGA)
Another name for surface mount PGA (see Surface Mount PGA).
4, C- (ceramic)
Indicates the symbol of the ceramic package. For example, CDIP stands for ceramic DIP. It is a mark often used in practice.
Ceramic double-in-line ceramic package sealed with glass, used for ECL RAM, DSP (Digital Signal Processor) and other circuits. Cerdip with glass window is used for UV erasing EPROM and microcomputer circuit with EPROM inside. The center of the pins is 2.54mm, and the number of pins is from 8 to 42. In Japan, this package is referred to as DIP-G (G means glass seal).
One of the surface-mount packages is a ceramic QFP with a lower seal for packaging logic LSI circuits such as DSPs. Cerquad with window is used to encapsulate EPROM circuits. The heat dissipation is better than plastic QFP, and it can tolerate power of 1.5 ~ 2W under natural air cooling conditions. But packaging costs are 3 to 5 times higher than plastic QFP. The center distance of the pins has various specifications such as 1.27mm, 0.8mm, 0.65mm, 0.5mm, 0.4mm. The number of pins is from 32 to 368.
7.CLCC (ceramic leaded chip carrier)
Ceramic chip carrier with pins, one of the surface-mount packages. The pins are drawn from the four sides of the package and are T-shaped. With window for encapsulating UV-erasable EPROM and microcomputer circuit with EPROM. This package is also called QFJ, QFJ-G (see QFJ).
8, COB (chip on board)
On-chip chip packaging is one of the bare chip mounting technologies. The semiconductor chip is handed over to the printed circuit board. The electrical connection between the chip and the substrate is realized by the wire stitching method, and the electrical connection between the chip and the substrate is realized by the wire stitching method. Resin covered to ensure reliability. Although COB is the simplest bare chip placement technology, its packaging density is far inferior to TAB and flip-chip bonding technologies.
9.DFP (dual flat package)
Double-sided pin flat package. It is another name for SOP (see SOP). This term has been used before, but it is basically no longer used.
10.DIC (dual in-line ceramic package)
Another name for ceramic DIP (including glass seal) (see DIP).
11.DIL (dual in-line)
Another name for DIP (see DIP). European semiconductor manufacturers often use this name.
12.DIP (dual in-line package)
Dual in-line package. One of the plug-in packages, the pins are drawn from both sides of the package, and the package materials are plastic and ceramic. DIP is the most popular plug-in package, and its applications include standard logic ICs, memory LSIs, and microcomputer circuits. The center distance of the pins is 2.54mm, and the number of pins is from 6 to 64. Package width is usually 15.2mm. Some packages with a width of 7.52mm and 10.16mm are called skinny DIP and slim DIP (narrow body DIP), respectively. However, in most cases, no distinction is made, and they are simply collectively referred to as DIP. In addition, ceramic DIP sealed with low melting glass is also called cerdip (see cerdip).
13.DSO (dual small out-lint)
Double-sided small outline package. Another name for SOP (see SOP). Some semiconductor manufacturers use this name.
14.DICP (dual tape carrier package)
Double-sided pin carrier package. One of TCP (Tape Loaded Encapsulation). The pins are made on an insulating tape and lead out from both sides of the package. Due to the use of TAB (Automatic Tape Loading Soldering) technology, the package is very thin. It is often used in liquid crystal display driver LSIs, but most of them are custom products. In addition, the 0.5mm-thick memory LSI book package is in the development stage. In Japan, DICP is named DTP in accordance with the standards of the EIAJ (Japanese Electronics and Machinery Industries) Association.
15.DIP (dual tape carrier package)
Ibid. The Japanese Electronic Machinery Industry Association named DTCP (see DTCP).
16.FP (flat package)
Flat package. One of the surface mount packages. Another name for QFP or SOP (see QFP and SOP). Some semiconductor manufacturers use this name.
Invert the chip. As one of the bare chip packaging technologies, metal bumps are made in the electrode area of the LSI chip, and then the metal bumps are connected to the electrode area on the printed circuit board by pressure bonding. The footprint of the package is basically the same as the chip size. It is the smallest and thinnest of all packaging technologies. However, if the thermal expansion coefficient of the substrate is different from that of the LSI chip, a reaction occurs at the joint, which affects the reliability of the connection. Therefore, the LSI chip must be reinforced with resin, and a substrate material having substantially the same thermal expansion coefficient is used.
18. FQFP (fine pitch quad flat package)
The center of the small pin is QFP. Usually refers to QFP (see QFP) with a pin-to-center distance of less than 0.65mm. Some conductor manufacturers use this name.
19. CPAC (globe top pad array carrier)
Another name for BGA by Motorola, USA (see BGA).
20. CQFP (quad fiat package with guard ring)
Four-side pin flat package with guard ring. One of the plastic QFPs, the pins are covered with a resin protective ring to prevent bending deformation. Before assembling the LSI on a printed circuit board, cut the pins from the guard ring and make them into a seagull wing shape (L shape). This package has been mass-produced by Motorola in the United States